2010-2016年考研真题的翻译 部分

    2016

    Mental health is our birthright. (46)  We  dont  have  to  learn  how to be mentally healthy; it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend a broken  bone. Mental health cant be learned, only reawakened. It is like the immune system of the body, which under stress or through lack of nutrition or exercise can be weakened, but which never leaves us. When  we dont understand the value of mental health and we dont know how to gain access to it, mental health will remain hidden from us. (47) Our ment al health  doesnt  really go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully  capable of being restored in an instant.

    Mental health is the seed that contains self-esteemconfidence in ourselves and an ability to trust in our common sense. It allows us to have perspective on our livesthe ability to not take ourselves too seriously, to laugh at ourselves, to see the bigger picture, and to see that things will work out. Its a form of innate or unlearned optimism. (48) Mental health allows us to view others with  sympathy  if  they  are  having  troubles,  with  kindness  if  they  are  in  pain,  and  with

    unconditional love no matter who they are. Mental health is the source of creativity for solving problems, resolving conflict, making our surroundings more beautiful, managing our home life, or coming up with a creative business idea or invention to make our lives easier. It gives us patience for ourselves and toward others as well as patience while driving, catching a fish, working on our car, or raising a child. It allows us to see the beauty that surrounds us each moment in nature, in culture, in the flow of our daily lives.

    (49) Although mental health is the cure-all for living our lives, it is perfectly ordinary as you will see that it has been there to direct you through all your difficult decisions. It has been available even in the most mundane of life situations to show you right from wrong, good from bad, friend from foe. Mental health has commonly been called conscience, instinct, wisdom, common  sense,  or the  innevoice.  Wthink of  it simply as  a  healthy and  helpful flow of intelligent thought. (50) As you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.

     


     

     

     

    46.  口和 修复样。

    47.  真的后的在视线 但是

    48.  使在别论是 谁,的爱。

    49.  生活极其做每难决 定的引着

    50.  理健使慢节 健康


     

    2015

    47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world.

    48) But, the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly American.

    49) The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the 15th- and 16th-century explorations of North America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on barely enough food allotted to them. Many of the ship were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes storms blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought unbearably long delay.

    “To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief.”said one recorder of events, “The air at twelve leagues’distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden.”The colonists’first glimpse of the new land was a sight of dense woods. 50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a veritable real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores.

    46)在多种强大的动机 驱动下,这次运动在一片荒野上建起了一个国家,其本身塑造了一个未知大陆的性格和命运。

    47)美国是两种主要力 量的产物——即思想习俗、民族 特色各异的欧洲移民和修改这些特征的新国家的影响的产物。

    48)但由于美国特有的 地理条件,不同民族的相互作 用,以及维护原始老式 方式的纯粹困难,新大陆引起了重大 变化。

    49)15—16世纪北美探索的一 百多年之后,运往该领土即当今的美国 的第一船移民横渡 了大西洋。

    50)拥有丰富多样树种 的原始森林是一个真正的宝库,它从缅因州一直延伸到乔治亚州。


     

    2014

    Music means different things to different people and sometimes even different things to the same person at different moments of his life. It might be poetic, philosophical, sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view, have something to do with the soul of the human being. Hence it is metaphysical; but the means of expression is purely and exclusively physical: sound. I believe it is precisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysical message through physical means that is the strength of music. (46)It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.

    Beethoven’s importance in music has been principally defined by the revolutionary nature of his compositions. He freed music from hitherto prevailing conventions of harmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his late works a will to break all signs of continuity. The music is abrupt and seemingly disconnected, as in the last piano sonata. In musical expression, he did not feel restrained by the weight of convention. (47)By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.

    This courageous attitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers of Beethoven’s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, for example in the use of dynamics. (48)Beethoven’s habit of increasing the volume with an intense crescendo and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.

    Beethoven was a deeply political man in the broadest sense of the word. He was not interested in daily politics, but concerned with questions of moral behavior and the larger questions of right and wrong affecting the entire society. (49)Especially significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.

    Beethoven’s music tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an imperative of human existence. For him, order does not result from forgetting or ignoring the disorders that plague our existence; order is a necessary development, an improvement that may lead to the Greek ideal of spiritual elevation. It is not by chance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of the Eroica Symphony, but the second, so that suffering does not have the last word. (50)One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.

    46. It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.
    这也是为什么我们 尝试用语言来描述音乐时,只是能表达出对音乐的感受却无法领会音乐本身。
    47. By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.
    据大家所说,他思 想自由,勇气十足。在对其作品的理解方面,我认为勇气是本质,更不用说在作品的演奏方面了。
    48. Beethoven's habit of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.
    贝多芬习惯最大限 度地增加音量,然后突然转为柔和的乐段,这在其之前的音乐家中是很少有的。
    49.Especially significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.
    尤其重要的是他关 于自由的观点,在他自己看来,这种观点是和个人的权利和义务相关联的。他宣扬的是思想和个人表达的自由。
    50.One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.
    人们可以通过以下 论断来诠释贝多芬的许多作品:苦难是不可避免的,但正是这种与苦难作斗争的勇气给了生命价值。


     

    2013

    It is speculated that gardens arise from a basic need in the individuals who made them: the need for creative expression. There is no doubt that gardens evidence an impossible urge to create, express, fashion, and beautify and that self-expression is a basic human urge; (46) Yet when one looks at the photographs of the garden created by the homeless, it strikes one that , for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression.

    One of these urges had to do with creating a state of peace in the midst of turbulence, a “still point of the turning world,” to borrow a phrase from T. S. Eliot. (47)A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need. This distinction is so much so that where the latter is lacking, as it is for these unlikely gardens, the former becomes all the more urgent. Composure is a state of mind made possible by the structuring of one’s relation to one’s environment. (48) The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce from into an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such. In so doing they give composure to a segment of the inarticulate environment in which they take their stand.

    Another urge or need that these gardens appear to respond to, or to arise from is so intrinsic that we are barely ever conscious of its abiding claims on us. When we are deprived of green, of plants, of trees, (49) most of us give into a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in garden and feel the expression vanish as if by magic. In most of the homeless gardens of New York City the actual cultivation of plants is unfeasible, yet even so the compositions often seem to represent attempts to call arrangement of materials, an institution of colors, small pool of water, and a frequent presence of petals or leaves as well as of stuffed animals. On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference, at some basic level, seems to be the natural world. (50)It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of word garden though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions. In them we can see biophilia- a yearning for contact with nonhuman lifeassuming uncanny representational forms.

    46. 然而,看着无家可 归者绘制出的花园图片时,人们会突然意识到,尽管这些花园风格多样,它们都显示了人类除了装饰和创造性表达之外的其他各种基本诉求47. 一块神圣的和平之 地,不管它有多么粗糙,它都是一种人类本能的需求,和庇护所相反,那只是动物的本能需求。
    47.
    无论地方多么简陋 不堪,寻求一片静谧圣土是人类特有的需求,而动物需要的仅是仅是避难栖息之地。
    48.
    无家可归者描绘的 花园实质上是无所依附的,这些花园把一种形式引入城市环境中,而这样的城市环境中,形式要么根本不存在, 要么就完全不是以 这种明显的方式存在。
    49.
    我们大多数人会深 陷于精神萎靡的状态,并常常将此归咎为一些心理原因,直到某天我们发现自己置身花园中,感到如魔法般烦闷尽消。
    50.
    正是对自然的这种 或隐晦含蓄或清晰直白的提及,充分证实了用花园一词来描述这些虚 拟建筑是合乎情理的,即使是从毫无拘泥的意义来讲的。


     

    2012

    Since the days of Aristotle, a search for universal principles has characterized the scientific enterprise. In some ways, this quest for commonalities defines science. Newton’s laws of motion and Darwinian evolution each bind a host of different phenomena into a single explicatory frame work.

      (46)In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unification to its extreme, and seeks a theory of everything—a single generative equation for all we see.It is becoming less clear, however, that such a theory would be a simplification, given the dimensions and universes that it might entail, nonetheless, unification of sorts remains a major goal.

      This tendency in the natural sciences has long been evident in the social sciences too. (47)Here, Darwinism seems to offer justification for it all humans share common origins it seems reasonable to suppose that cultural diversity could also be traced to more constrained beginnings. Just as the bewildering variety of human courtship rituals might all be considered forms of sexual selection, perhaps the world’s languages, music, social and religious customs and even history are governed by universal features. (48)To filter out what is unique from what is shared might enable us to understand how complex cultural behavior arose and what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms.

      That, at least, is the hope. But a comparative study of linguistic traits published online today supplies a reality check. Russell Gray at the University of Auckland and his colleagues consider the evolution of grammars in the light of two previous attempts to find universality in language.

      The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky, who suggested that humans are born with an innate language—acquisition capacity that dictates a universal grammar. A few generative rules are then sufficient to unfold the entire fundamental structure of a language, which is why children can learn it so quickly.

      (49)The second, by Joshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach to universality identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by many language which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints

      Gray and his colleagues have put them to the test by examining four family trees that between them represent more than 2,000 languages.(50)Chomsky’s grammar should show patterns of language change that are independent of the family tree or the pathway tracked through it. Whereas Greenbergian universality predicts strong co-dependencies between particular types of word-order relations. Neither of these patterns is borne out by the analysis, suggesting that the structures of the languages are lire age-specific and not governed by universals

     

    46. 【解析】本题语法 结构并不复杂,关键在于对于概念陌生的unification的正确把握。 unification是动词unify的名词形式,意为 统一、一元化 。然而,结合上段 最后一句:Newton's laws of motion and Darwinian evolution each bind a host of different phenomena into a single explicatory framework。以及本句并列结 构后半部分,可以把握在本文中,意为:一致的解释理论。另外,本句最后还到对定语从句的考查:we seeall的定语从句。

      【参考译文】在物 理学上,有一种方法把这种追求一致解释理论的愿望发挥到了极致,它试图找到一种万物的理论——用唯一的生成等式 解释我们能看到的所有事物。

      47.【解析】本句语法 结构并不复杂,for为连词,意为 因为。后半句涉及到对 于形式主语的考查。

      【参考译文】在此 ,达尔文主义似乎提供了一种合理解释,因为如果整个人类都有着相同的起源,那么认为,文化多样性也可能追溯到人类更有局限性的开端,似乎是有理由的。

      48.【解析】本句主语 为不定式短语to filter out what is unique from what is shared,谓语部分为 enable sb to do sth。其中考查了 4个宾语从句,语法 结构方面较上两句复杂。句中代词it指代complex cultural behavior;term一词,考生可联想 短语in terms of(而言,在方面)来选择恰当词义 ;filter out意为:过滤掉、筛除、淘 汰

      【参考译文】如果 我们从共性之中去除个性,那么或许我们能够理解复杂的文化行为如何产生,以及何种因素在进化或认识的角度,引导了这种复杂的文化行为。

      49.【解析】本题考点 涉及代词的还原,现在分词做状语,过去分词做后置定语,非限制性定语从句以及被动。句首the second,回上文寻找,可 在上段第一句找到The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky,其中initiate发起、创始 ,可推知此处为 the second effort,即上文的 two previous attempts;shared by many language修饰traits;which引导的定语从句, 同样修饰traits;定语从句的中的被 动语态可采用主动的译法,添加主语人们

      【参考译文】做出 第二次努力的是乔舒亚·格林伯雷。他采用 更加经验的方法来研究这种普遍性,他发现了多种语言的共同特征(特别是词序上的特 征),而人们认为这种 共同特征体现了认识由于认知局限所产生的偏见。

      50.【解析】语法结构 方面,本句考查了定语从句,过去分词做后置定语,并列结构等。词汇方面,family tree词义的选择,可借 助上文by examining four family trees that between them represent more than 2,000 languages,可判断为语言的 谱系,后文代词it指代family tree

      【参考译文】乔姆 斯基的语法应该表明语言变化的模式,这种模式独立于语言谱系,或者独立于由该谱系所产生的路径,而格林伯格的普遍性理论则认为在特定种类的词序关系之间,有着紧密的相互依赖关系。


     

    2011

    With its theme that “Mind is the master weaver,” creating our inner character and outer circumstances, the book As a Man Thinking by James Allen is an in-depth exploration of the central idea of self-help writing.

    (46) Allen’s contribution was to take an assumption we all share-that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts-and reveal its erroneous nature. Because most of us believe that mind is separate from matter, we think that thoughts can be hidden and made powerless; this allows us to think one way and act another. However, Allen believed that the unconscious mind generates as much action as the conscious mind, and (47) while we may be able to sustain the illusion of control through the conscious mind alone, in reality we are continually faced with a question: “Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that? ”

    Since desire and will are damaged by the presence of thoughts that do not accord with desire, Allen concluded : “ We do not attract what we want, but what we are.” Achievement happens because you as a person embody the external achievement; you don’t “ get” success but become it. There is no gap between mind and matter.

    Part of the fame of Allen’s book is its contention that “Circumstances do not make a person, they reveal him.” (48) This seems a justification for neglect of those in need, and a rationalization of exploitation, of the superiority of those at the top and the inferiority of those at the bottom.

    This ,however, would be a knee-jerk reaction to a subtle argument. Each set of circumstances, however bad, offers a unique opportunity for growth. If circumstances always determined the life and prospects of people, then humanity would never have progressed. In fat, (49)circumstances seem to be designed to bring out the best in us and if we feel that we have been “wronged” then we are unlikely to begin a conscious effort to escape from our situation .Nevertheless, as any biographer knows, a person’s early life and its conditions are often the greatest gift to an individual.

    The sobering aspect of Allen’s book is that we have no one else to blame for our present condition except ourselves. (50) The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up to us; where before we were experts in the array of limitations, now we become authorities of what is possible.

    46.艾伦的贡献在于, 他拿出“我们并非机器人,因此能掌控自己的思想”这一公认的假设,并揭示了其谬误所在。

    47.尽管我们或许可以 仅凭意识来维系“控制”这种错觉,现实中我们还是不断要面对一个问题:“我为什么不能让自己做个或实现那个?”

    48. 这似乎是在为忽视 贫困者的行为做辩护,为剥削,为社会上层人群的优越及社会底层人群的卑微找理由。

    49. 环境仿佛就是为了 激发我们的最大潜能而设。如果我们觉得自己遭受了“不公”,就不大可能有意识的区努力摆脱自己的处境。

    50.其正面意义在于, 了解了一切都取决于我们自己,即有了诸多可能,此前我们是谙熟各种局限的专家,现在我们成了驾驭各种可能性的权威。

    2010

     

    One basic weakness in a conservation system based wholly on economic motives is that most members of the land community have no economic value. Yet these creatures are members of the biotic community and, if its stability depends on its integrity, they are entitled to continuance.

    When one of these noneconomic categories is threatened and, if we happen to love it .We invert excuses to give it economic importance. At the beginning of century songbirds were supposed to be disappearing. (46) Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up if birds failed to control them. the evidence had to be economic in order to be valid.

    It is painful to read these round about accounts today. We have no land ethic yet, (47) but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us.

    A parallel situation exists in respect of predatory mammals and fish-eating birds. (48) Time was when biologists somewhat over worded the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on "worthless" species.

    Some species of tree have been read out of the party by economics-minded foresters because they grow too slowly, or have too low a sale vale to pay as timber crops. (49) In Europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the non-commercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community, to be preserved as such, within reason.

    To sum up: a system of conservation based solely on economic self-interest is hopelessly lopsided. (50) It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning. It assumes, falsely, I think, that the economic parts of the biotic clock will function without the uneconomic parts.

    46.科学家们提出一些 明显站不住脚的证据迅速来拯救,其大意是:如果鸟类无法控制害虫,那么这些害虫就会吃光我们人类。

    47. 但我们至少几乎也 承认这样一点:不管鸟类是否给我们带来经济上的好处,但鸟类作为生物其固有的权利应该继续存在。

    48. 曾几何时,生物学 家们有点过度使用这个证据,即这些物种通过杀死体质弱者来保持猎物的正常繁衍或 者这些生物捕杀的 仅仅是毫无价值的物种。

    49. 在欧洲,林业在生 态方面更加发达,无商业价值的树种被看作是原生森林群落的一部分,而得到合理的保护。

    50. 这一系统易于忽视 ,因而最终会消除掉这个土地共同体里的许多要素(成员),虽然这些要素 (成员)缺乏商业价值,但 这些要素(成员)对这个共同体的健 康运行来说是必要的。

     

     

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